Flies Commonly Found Around Farms

Identification of Flies Commonly Found Around Farms

Horn Fly (Haematobia irritants)

Description

  • Complete lifecycle takes 7 to 21 days
  • Adults spend their entire lives on cattle
  • Female lays up to 500 small, reddish-brown eggs in fresh manure
  • Eggs hatch in a few hours into maggots which mature to pupa in 10 to 12 days

Life Cycle

  • Complete lifecycle takes 7 to 21 days
  • Adults spend their entire lives on cattle
  • Female lays up to 500 small, reddish-brown eggs in fresh manure
  • Eggs hatch in a few hours into maggots which mature to pupa in 10 to 12 days

Food Source

  • Feeds on the blood of cattle; lives on or around the shoulders and backs of cattle, moving to the belly on hot days or in rain storms
  • Larvae live in fresh manure

Indications

  • Tail switching
  • Visible irritation
  • Batching of flies on the animal

Threat

  • Can cause anemia, reduced weight gain, decreased grazing time and a general weakening of the animals

 

Horn Fly

Face Fly (Musca autumnalis)

Description

  • Dark gray
  • Four dark stripes on thorax
  • Abdomen dark gray in males, black in females
  • Orangeat sides in males
  • 7 to 8 mm long

Life Cycle

  • Complete lifecycle takes 14 to 18 days
  • Generally live in and around homes and structures on cattle operations
  • Female lays up to 150 small, white eggs in fresh manure
  • Eggs hatch in a few hours into maggots
  • Maggots mature to pupal stage in 3 to 10 days

Food Source

  • Female face flies feed on the secretions of mucus and secretions from the eyes and nostrils of cattle and horses; male face flies feed primarily on nectar and dung
  • Fresh cattle manure serves as the optimal place for female face flies to deposit eggs

Indications

  • Pinkeye

Threat

  • Can transmit Moraxella bovis, the bacteria that causes pinkeye in cattle
  • Disrupt cattle feeding and reduce weight gain

 Face Fly

 

Stable Fly (Stomoxys calcitrans)

Description

  • Dark gray
  • Four dark stripes on thorax, abdomen
  • Dark spots
  • 5-8 mm long

Life Cycle

  • Complete lifecycle takes 3 to 6 weeks
  • Adult stable flies generally live around livestock facilities
  • Adult female lays up to 50 small off-white eggs in decaying animal or plant waste
  • Maggots mature to pupal stage in 12 to 21 days

Food Source

  • Adult stable flies feed on blood from cattle, horses, and even humans
  • Larvae feed on fecal materials and decaying organic matter, such as silage, rotting hay and grass clippings

Indications

  • Cattle bunching
  • Tail switching
  • Constant moving

Threat

  • Deliver a painful bite and are capable of transmitting some viruses
  • Disrupt feeding and reduce weight gain

 Stable Fly

House Fly (Musca domestica)

Description

  • Dark gray
  • Four dark stripes on the thorax
  • Abdomen yellowish at sides
  • 5-8 mm long

Life Cycle

  • Complete lifecycle takes 10 to 21 days
  • Female lays up to 150 eggs in moist, warm, decaying organic matter
  • In about 12 hours, eggs hatch into maggots that grow to about 1/2 inch
  • Maggots pupate in the ground for 5 to 6 days up to a month

Food Source

  • Animal manure, decomposing grain, dead or decomposing animals and plant materials
  • Larvae live and feed on several materials that are high in bacteria such as manure and decaying organic matter

Indications

  • Fly specks
  • Adult flies around building, feed and animals

Threat

  • Can carry diseases including cholera, dysentery and anthrax
  • Leave little spots called 'fly specks' which are made of fly excrement and very hard to remove
  • Annoyed neighbors can bring lawsuits seeking damages or the closing of your animal facility

 House Fly

 

Deer Fly (Chrysops sp.)

Description

  • black, yellow and black, or, sometimes, gray
  • often have 'bee-like' abdominal stripes5-12 mm long

Life Cycle

  • Typically one generation per year
  • In about 5-12 days, eggs hatch into maggots  
  • Maggots pupate in the ground for 6 to 12 days    

Food Source

  • Females require a blood meal in order to reproduce
  • Larvae live and feed on several materials as manure and decaying organic matter

Indications

  • Tail swishing,
  •  animals agitated

Threat

  • Can carry diseases including anaplasmosis
  • Weight drops of up to 20% have been reported

 Deer Fly

 

 

 
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